Rome is the capital city of Italy, but it was a capital city long before the modern unification of Italy, which took place in the late 1800s. Rome has served as the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire and was the center of the "civilized" world for centuries. Even now, it remains the center of the Roman Catholic Religion -- Vatican City itself is located inside the city of Rome.
Rome is so full of art, architecture, and history that no description can truly do it justice, but perhaps that is as it should be. Rome needs to be experienced in order to be understood. Fortunately, there are many holiday homes in Rome that allow visitors to stay for as long as necessary to get a feel for the city and all its rich treasures.
Those treasures include the Colosseum, built in the first century AD and originally able to seat up to 60,000 spectators who came to see gladiators fight to the death. Other archeological sites not to be missed include the Circus Maximus, home to chariot races and familiar to modern people through such classic films as Ben Hur, and Trajan's Column. The Roman Forum, the Catacombs, and the Pantheon are also popular tourist destinations.
One could spend a year just exploring these ancient sites, but Renaissance Rome has just as much to offer tourists, from the Piazza del Campidoglio, a public square designed by Michelangelo himself, to the Palazzo Chigi, a Renaissance palace that now serves as the seat of the Prime Minister of Italy.